Who are Indian Citizens

The Citizenship Act, 1955 lays down following types of citizenship:

1. By birth: If one is born in India and ≥ 1 parent is Indian.

2. By descent: If either of one’s parents had Indian citizenship before the commencement of Constitution. The birth has to be registered in embassy of India. Descent citizenship is as of right.
3. By registration: (a) PIO: (1 + 8/7). (b) Persons married to Indian citizens: (1 + 8/7). (c) Minor children of Indian parents who became Indian citizens after the birth. (d) OCI: Of ≥ 5 year standing with 1 year residence in India.
4. By naturalization: One can apply for citizenship if (1 + 12).
5. By incorporation of a territory: If India acquires some new territory then those people will be given a choice.

Overseas Citizens of India

Who can become
  1. PIOs except those living in Pakistan and Bangladesh can apply.
  1. Can travel to India without visa, will get a travel document similar to passport.
  2. Educational institutions benefits.
  3. Property and investment in India will get domestic treatment.


  1. Can’t hold a Constitutional office / vote / contest any election.
  2. Doesn’t get equality in treatment under Art 16 for public offices.

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